Racism, religious bigotry, sexism/heterosexism and other forms of cultural oppression and social injustice continue to adversely impact the psychological well-being and healthy development of millions of persons all across the United States. There are individual, organizational-institutional and cultural manifestations of these problems. Individual forms of racism, religious bigotry and sexism/heterosexism

Compared to traditional Western views about counseling, the multicultural-social justice movement promotes very different ways of thinking about mental health, psychological development and the important roles counselors can play in fostering these concepts. The issue of trauma is an excellent example. Significant differences exist in the way many traditionally trained

Multicultural counseling is grounded in social justice perspectives about human development and psychological well-being. These perspectives contrast sharply with the traditional individualistic, intrapsychic theoretical focus that many counselors have been and, in many instances, continue to be trained to implement in their work. It is well known that the multicultural-social