As my colleague and I chatted casually in the copy room about life’s odds and ends, she mentioned a client I had referred to her some months earlier.

“Thomas [not the client’s real name] is doing so well,” she commented absentmindedly. “Thank you for the referral.”

Nobody was around to hear us, but I couldn’t believe my ears. My colleague had just used a client’s name. Even though I had referred the client to her and I knew she was seeing him, I was shocked she had identified him so casually.

When we study counseling ethics, we often use phrases such as “do no harm” or “what is in the best interest of the client” as general landmarks for ethical dilemmas. In the 2014 ACA Code of Ethics, nearly all of the ethical standards, from Section A through Section I, in some way or another relate back to protecting the client from harm.

Although I use these benchmarks myself and often mention them to my supervisees and interns, I would suggest that confidentiality comes in at a close second place for the core of our ethical conduct.

Our informed consent, release of information documents, and testimony in court are all centered around the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of our clients. We don’t leave client files lying about on our desks or open on our computer screens.

Current common practice in office construction is to have windows in all office doors. The attorney for the university where I teach loves this practice. But this approach creates an ethical problem for us as counselors. We cannot maintain the confidentiality of our clients’ identities if passersby can easily glance in the window and see them.

When the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was first introduced to us, I resented it as another governmental intrusion into my work, but I came to realize its power to protect the confidential information of our clients — the very thing I am advocating here. While I don’t necessarily “love” HIPAA, I value it highly and comply with all of its requirements. I pay heed to HIPAA not simply to keep from getting into trouble, but rather to protect my clients.

The very words in this article model my respect for client confidentiality. I have changed the name of the client and a few of the specifics regarding the interaction between my colleague and me. If either of them happened across this article, there is little chance that they would recognize themselves. The gist of the story is true, but some details were changed to protect both the client and my colleague.

I drill a high regard for confidentiality into the minds of my clinicians. I want to ensure that they are so sensitized to this part of our ethics that even the smallest breach will scream at them.

While I certainly appreciate a word of thanks from a colleague if I refer a client, I don’t want to hear, “Thanks for referring Thomas to me …” Even the simple use of a client’s first name in a private conversation between colleagues is a big deal. If we allow that, what other slips will we allow?

I couldn’t let the situation pass. According to Standard D.1.d. of the 2014 ACA Code of Ethics, it is my duty to address ethical lapses within the field. This provision says that if we perceive an ethical violation, we should first approach colleagues directly to resolve it.

As awkward as it was, I gently told my friend it made me uncomfortable that she had used the client’s name. I had scarcely finished the sentence before her mouth dropped open and she quickly covered it with her hand upon the realization of what she had done. She apologized and said she knew better. Somewhat to my surprise, she also thanked me for modeling ethical conduct and for respectfully calling this out to her. She won’t make that mistake again, and I’m glad I did the right thing.

Thomas will never know what happened. But this isn’t just about Thomas. It is about a way of behaving that protects all of our clients, regardless of whether they will ever find out.

Basketball legend John Wooden has been credited with saying, “Character is how you behave when no one is watching.” Ethical behavior, including confidentiality, is perhaps most clearly reflected when no one is watching.




Gregory K. Moffatt is a veteran counselor of more than 30 years and the dean of the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at Point University. His monthly Voice of Experience column for CT Online seeks to share theory, ethics and practice lessons learned from his diverse career, as well as inspiration for today’s counseling professionals, whether they are just starting out or have been practicing for many years. His experience includes three decades of work with children, trauma and abuse, as well as a variety of other experiences, including work with schools, businesses and law enforcement. Contact him at



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